- Human disturbances have caused the leopard to wander over very large territories to satisfy their food requirements and they may not remain more than a few days in a given locality.
- The increased evidences of livestock predation and human conflicts indicates depleted natural resources with poor prey base and that urgent conservation measures by reducing habitat degradation & to restore the population of prey species are required. 
|29/7/2011||Galta ji||Entered house/ Beaten to death||—||Dead|
|19/9/2013||Amore (Nahargarh Biological Park)||Unknown||—||Dead|
|7/10/2013||Jamwa Ramgarh||Territorial fight||—||Dead|
|28/10/2013||Looniawaas||Entered house/Rescued||4 persons mauled||Alive|
|25/11/2013||Bandh ki Ghati (Amer)||Internal injuries (Brain, Liver, Lung)||—||Dead|
|22/4/2015||Virat Nagar||Entered village/Beaten to death||3 persons mauled||Dead|
|6/11/2015||Milaap Nagar||Entered house/Rescued||—||Alive|
|21/2/2016||Jaisinghpura Khor||Iron Trap by Poachers/Rescued||—||Alive|
|8/3/2016||Galta forest||Leopard cub entered human settlement/Rescued||—||Alive|
|15/6/2016||Khole ke Hanuman||Found dead due to starvation||—||Dead|
|21/12/2016||University of Rajasthan, Jaipur||Entered University campus/Rescued||—||Alive|
|9/1/2017||Daulatpura, Manpura||Entered village/Beaten and Tied to tree by villagers/Rescued||1 boy mauled||Alive|
|6/3/2017||JLN Marg, Jaipur||Entered public park/residing there/park closed||—||Alive|
|18/5/2017||Bassi||Entered human settlement/Rescued||—||Alive|
- Trashing speculation following the spate of recent incidents of human-leopard conflict which indicated that leopard numbers were on the rise, a study conducted by three wildlife scientists has found that the leopard population, on the contrary, has declined by a whopping 70-80% over the past 100 years. When the interests of human beings and wildlife are at odds, sometimes nobody wins. In rural India, several million people rely on crops and livestock for income. A roaming tiger, leopard, elephant, or pig can pose a threat to their livelihood, not to mention human life. The conflict plays out along the “hard edges,” areas where nature reserves end and villages begin.
- To avert such conflicts, state wildlife departments must launch awareness drives among local residents about the possible causes of such attacks and the preventive measures to be taken so that losses in terms of livestock, humans as well as leopards can be minimized. Residents should be paid ex-gratia in case of attacks/deaths of humans and loss of livestock at the earliest .
- Halogen Light Technique: Villages situated in fringe area of Jaipur forest have been witnessing regular leopard sightings. These leopards attack livestock after watching them carefully from a safe distance. Due to the absence of proper illumination by lights in these areas, leopards remain elusive until the attack is carried out. Installation of halogen lights on the roof the houses and livestock sheds facing the boundary and bushy forest area was the first mitigation technique applied.
- I-Cow Technique: In this technique the structure of eyes is painted on the rump of cattle which dwell near the forest area. This idea is already present in nature; many animals use such mechanism to defend themselves from the enemy. Animals like Spectacled Cobra (Naja naja), Four-eyed butterfish (Chaetodon capistratus), Owl Butterfly (Caligo beltrao), etc use this technique to confuse their predator.
- Metallic Livestock Sheds: To reduce leopard dependency on livestock metal sheds were constructed for cattle in some villages. A guideline was given to villagers how to construct metallic livestock sheds in place of their thatch roofed cages. Earlier the cattle were being kept in temporary sheds which are not very safe during leopard attacks. These domestic animals were very easy for the leopards to kill and eat.
- ‘Cattle bell’ technique: Villagers were instructed to tie cattle bells around the necks of few members in a shed every night. This technique was carried out as an alarm for shepherds in case of a leopard attack wherein anxious movement inside the shed would draw the attention of shepherd.
Fig 1.1 Scale of Human Leopard Conflict zonesWe conducted surveys and marked waypoints in GPS of the conflict areas. We surveyed 79 villages in fringe areas of these two forests, out of which 18 villages showed rare or no leopard movement, 22 villages are suffering from conflict situations, but 39 villages are in major conflict zones. Table 1.2 Number of villages and colonies in identified conflict zones
Number of Villages and Colonies
- Halogen Light Technique: Installation of halogen lights on the roof of houses and livestock sheds facing the boundary and bushy forest area illuminated the hideout spots of leopards during the night time. Leopards have a habit of scanning their territory where they wish to conduct an ambush. In these conflict hotspots, leopards stopped lying in wait for their attack victim around attack-prone houses in forest fringe areas. This technique discouraged leopards to enter the area.
- I-Cow Technique: In this technique the structure of painted eyes on the rump of 50% cattle population in fringe communities enabled us to compare the rate of leopard attacks between cattle with and without the I-Cow technique. This novel technique acted like a ‘surprise element’ for leopards which attack cattle while grazing in forest fringe areas.
|Table 1.3 ‘I-Cow’ Status in Jhalana and NWLS|
|Till 30th December 2016||Till February 2017|
|Animal||Adult||Sub-adult / Baby||Total||Mark Still Found||Repeated|
|Total “I-Cow”||Total + Repeated||1463|
- Metallic Livestock Sheds: We encouraged shepherds to build metallic livestock sheds for their animals with the aim of better protection from predation by leopards. A better alternative was construction and installation of wire mesh cages with thorny bushes along the outer surface of the livestock sheds. This technique discouraged leopards to come near the livestock sheds both during the day as well as at night time. These metallic livestock sheds have been very resourceful and have replaced older thatch-roofed and wooden cages in these villages. After making these sheds leopard movement in these villages is now reduced.
Fig 1.4 Installation of Metallic Livestock Sheds in affected villages
- ‘Cattle bell’ technique: Villagers were instructed to tie cattle bells around the necks of few members in a shed every night, so that even if some leopard strayed into the neighborhood at night, these few cattle with bells around their necks would act like an alarm. This was most useful in those houses in which villagers could not afford cemented base for metallic livestock sheds and there were chances for the leopard to dig around the wired mesh and enter the shed. The villagers were instructed to remove the cattle bells every morning before they went for grazing in order to avoid every possible chance for the leopard to follow the cattle bell sound in the forest fringe area while the cattle were grazing.
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